Menulis itu Seperti Petani

Oleh : Maspril Aries

“Don’t be ‘a writer’. Be writing”  (William Cuthber Faulkner)

Bacaan Lainnya

Pada era tahun 1980-an seorang novelis terkenal pada masa itu, yang juga penulis skenario sinetron televisi “Si Doel Anak Sekolahan” yaitu Harry Tjahjono pernah menulis, “Ketika petani mengayun cangkul, pada saat itu pula ia tenggelam dalam totalitas kerjanya. Tak ada lagi yang membelit benaknya kecuali kesungguhan kerja, kesedian mengolah sebidang sawah atau ladang. Oleh karena itu saya ingin menulis seperti petani, yang tenggelam dalam totalitas kerja tanpa kehilangan rasa hormat kepada Allah yang meniupkan ilham.”

Judul tulisan di atas saya rangkai dari apa yang ditulis Harry Tjahjono yang pernah menjadi wartawan tabloid Bintang Indonesia.  Penulis dan petani, apa yang dilakukan petani sehari-hari dapat dapat dibayangkan secara jelas dan transparan.

Lantas bagaimana dengan penulis? Tidak semua penulis bisa dikenali perilakunya sehari-hari. Namun, walau tak mengenal dunia kepenulisan secara utuh dengan totalitasnya, tidak berarti pula membuat seseorang (siapa saja) yang berminat menjadi penulis urung atau membatalkan niatnya menjadi penulis.

*   *    *

Pada tahun 1980-an ada seorang penulis kolom yang terkenal, Soetjipto Wirosardjono yang juga menjabat Kepala BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) menulis, “Kenapa Saya Menulis?” Pertanyaan tersebut sangat relevan jika dilontarkan kepada penulis pemula pada era milenial. Maka jawabannya akan beragam dan banyak. Sebanyak orang yang ditanya. Jawaban mereka tidak ada yang salah, semua benar.

Coba tanyakan kepada orang yang merokok. “Kenapa anda merokok?” Atau begini, “Mengapa anda minum kopi, juga ada yang minum teh?” Apakah orang akan menjawab seragam, “Nikmat?”

Maka jawaban itu menurut saya, omong kosong atau bulshit. Oleh karena mereka suka kopi dan juga merokok, maka jawabannya yang pas dengan mengena adalah: “Jika ingin tahu kenapa orang lain merokok atau minum kopi maka jadilah anda perokok atau pengopi.”

Demikian pula jika ingin tahu mengapa orang lain menulis? Jawabannya, jadikan diri anda sebagai penulis. Itulah jawaban yang yang bisa mendekati jawaban yang benar.

Sebagai manusia sebetulnya kita sama, kita perlu makan, minum, tidur dan bergerak. Atau kita pun sama dianugerahi kemampuan berpikir dan perasaan, karena itu bisa sedih, bisa gembira, kadangkala puas, ada kalanya kecewa.

Bila saya menulis, tangan saya digerakan oleh hakekat kehadiran saya sebagai manusia biasa. Bila ada pikiran, gagasan dan cita-cita tertuang dalam tulisan saya, semata-mata itu cermin fitrah kemanusian belaka.

Jangkauan jelajah ide dan gagasan tiap manusia itu pada dasarnya bebas, bisa kemana saja, keleluasaan geraknya hanya dibingkai oleh wawasan kesadaran hati nuraninya. Hanya faktor lingkungan, kepercayaan, pendidikan, pengetahuan, ilusi atau bayang-bayang, bahkan takhayul bisa menjadi penyekat-penyekatnya.

“Mana kala ide dan gagasan diberi peluang bebas mengembara, niscaya akan dijelajahi dunia cita-cita, dipertajam kepekaan terhadap kenyataan serta menguak kegelapan pemahaman,” tulis Soetjipto Wirosardjono.

 

Seorang penulis bila sedang mood, rasanya selalu bisa menuangkan ider dan gagasan serta cita-cita itu dalam kajiannya yang jernih, terjaring dalam sejumput ilmu pengetahuan dan bila perlu mengais dari bacaan serta memoles dengan berbagai pisau keterampilan. Selebihnya adalah pekerjaan tangan, kadang-kadang seorang penulis merasa juga seperti pengrajian bahasa, juru tutur dan mungkin juga pelawak. Sekedar bergenit dengan teknik, kadang harus jadi tukang rias, pemain komedi atau juru tonil.

Seorang penulis harus mengetahui bahwa dirinya hidup di tengah masyarakat. Berarti ia mudah terjangkit tanggung jawab sosial dan moral. Itulah sebabnya, jeritan nurani seorang penulis tidak bebas dari kesadaran sosial dan tanggung jawab moral. Minimal penulis akan iba, jika berani ia akan membela yang tidak berdaya. Maksimal memekikan panji-panji keadilan, kebebasan, kemandirian, serta nilai-nilai universal lainnya.

Sebagai seorang manusia, penulis bukanlah malaikat atau setan. Penulis punya ego. Karena itu pekik atau bisikan yang sok mengabdi pada kemaslahatan, suka kebablasan juga. Jadi yang baik menurut penulis belum tentu berkenan untuk pembaca. Yang hak menurut penulis atau kolumnis bisa juga dianggap batil oleh seorang penguasa.

Menurut Soetjipto Wirosardjono, “Karena itu penulis atau kolumnis harus punya rambu-rambu. Sulitnya rambu-rambu itu di Indonesia tidak ditulis baku.”

*          *          *

Selanjutnya, sudah siapkah untuk menulis? Siap menjadi penulis pemula atau milenial? Sama seperti petani yang membuka lahan sawahnya maka siapkan berbagai kebutuhan. Untuk menjadi penulis sama seperti petani mempersiapkan cangkul atau bajaknya.

Menulis itu mudah.

  • Menyiapkan pernyataan
  • Menyiapkan media komunikasi

Syarat menulis: Teliti

  • Membaca dengan teliti
  • Mendengar dengan teliti
  • Bertanya dengan teliti
  • Mencatat dengan teliti
  • Mengukur dengan teliti.

Sebelum menjadi penulis, seorang calon penulis harus dan perlu latihan menulis. Menulis di mana saja, menulis pada buku harian, menulis di media massa, menulis media sosial (medsos), atau zaman dulu ada yang disebut korespondensi, punya hobi meneliti (rasa ingin tahu). Setelah semua dilakukan mari mulai menulis.

Untuk menjadi penulis butuh konsentrasi saat bekerja. Bagi seorang penulis pemula yang ingin berhasil, mulailah ditanamkan dalam diri, bahwa yang terpenting dalam sebuah tulisan adalah isi.

Untuk teknik penulisan yang baik ibarat pot bunga menentukan ukuran tanaman. Kata penulis senior Eka Budianta, “Sebatang palem raja tidak mungkin ditanam di dalam pot tanah liat kecil.” Sebaliknya selembar daun bawang cukup disubrukan dalam bekas kaleng susu. Atau dapat dikatakan : teknik mengikuti isi. Berarti petunjuk apa pun yang ada dalam tulisan ini hanya sekedar kiat pengantar menjadi penulis hebat.

*       *       *

Tahap selanjutnya, seorang penulis Slamet Soeseno menyusut kita menulis sebagai berikut :

Pertama, menelaah tema. Kedua, menguji kelayakan topik (pokok bahasan) yang akan ditulis. Ketiga mengumpulkan nbahan sumber tulisan, dan keempat menyusun bahan informasi menjadi salah satu bentuk tulisan yang cocok.

Secara sederhana bahwa kiat yang harus dimiliki penulis pemula atau milenial sebelum menulis adalah:

  • Memilih topik (tulisan yang aktual, baru, unik, terkenal dan luar biasa)
  • Buat kerangka tulisan (outline)
  • Kekayaan kosa kata.

Bagaimana jika saat menulis masih buntu, mentok atau kerap disebut block writer? Topik yang akan ditulis tidak mengalir? Jawabanya, Stop jangan teruskan menulis. Matikan komputer atau laptop atau gadget anda. Atau lakukan apa yang ada sukai. Ini menyangkut proses kreatif seorang penulis atau pengarang yang satu dengan lainnya berbeda.

Atau akan lebih baik jika dilakukan dengan membangun kembali mood  menulis. Kais kembali tema yang terpuruk atau terbuang dengan membaca, mendengar, bertanya, mencatat dan mengukur dengan teliti.

Agar aktivitas menulis bagi seorang penulis pemula di era milenial ini bukan menjadi hal kontemporer, lakukan terus aktivitas anda menulis, latihan terus menulis agar menjadi seperti darah yang mengalir dan menguasai seluruh nadi dalam tubuh.

Jika sorang pemenang hadiah Nobel untuk bidang kesusastraan William Cuthber Faulkner dari Amerika Serikat mengatakan, “Seorang akan menjadi penulis … 99 persen bakat, … 99 persen disiplin, … 99 persen kerja keras.” Anda penulis pemula di era milenial ini tidak perlu berkecil hati dengan perkataan tersebut, karena ada penulis sukses yang bakatnya tidak mencapai 99 persen bisa menjadi penulis karena disiplin dalam latihan menulis dengan kerja keras. Seorang penulis tidak boleh merasa puas dengan apa yang dicapainya. ●

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